Introduction: Cognitive Dysfunction (CD) is a disease that increases with age. It is important to know the protective and risk factors for this disease.
Methodology: Observational study carried out on 729 people over 65 years of age in community 13 pharmacies for two years. Demographic data were collected (sex, age, level of studies) and lifestyles (love of reading, hobbies such as crossword puzzles or sudokus etc, TV hours), and the SPMSQ (Short-Portable Mental State Questionaire) test of Pfeiffer and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were carried out to check the patient’s CD.
A bibliographic review of the subject was also conducted.
Results: 17.6% of CD was detected. A statistically significant association was found as a protection against CD with a love of reading and the level of studies. No association was found with TV hours or hobbies.
The literature review provided more protective and risk factors.
Discussion: With our data we can affirm that both cognitive reserve (years of study) and cognitive stimulation (hours of reading) protect from CD.
No coincidences were found on the other data obtained, so it would be necessary to increase the sample size in order to make a more effective comparison.
Conclusions: Low educational level is a risk factor for CD while higher education would be a preventive factor.
Reading is a protective factor of CD.