Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors style life associated with the development of cognitive impairment among people aged 65 years and older.
Methods: Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted with non-institutionalized people aged 65 years or more. The study was carried out in 14 pharmacies from the Autonomous Community of Valencia, from march 2011 until march 2013. Two screening tests were used to detect the presence of cognitive impairment: the Spanish version of the Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, NORMACODEM version). Participants were considered impaired when their scores were ≥ 3 points in SPMSQ test (≥ 4 in illiterate participants) and/or ≤ 24 points in corrected MMSE test (Blesa’s NORMACODEM version).
Results: It was found that 17.6% of the study participants (n = 128) had scores in the tests compatible with the presence of cognitive impairment. It was observed that sleeping for more than 9 daily hours was cause or consequence and, therefore, a risk and/or alarm factor for the development of cognitive impairment among people aged 65 years old or more. The exercise and poor sleep hours are not associated with cognitive impairment.
Conclusions: Changing habits of sleep in the elderly (moving to sleep more hours) is an alert signal for the presence of a possible cognitive impairment.